Fortinet load balancing

fortinet load balancing

The load balancing method defines how sessions are load balanced to real servers. All load balancing methods do not send traffic to real servers that are down. This load balancing method uses the FortiGate session table to track the number of sessions being processed by each real server. The FortiGate unit cannot. Fortinet FortiBalancer Series of Application Delivery Controllers optimize A full range of Layer 2 – 7 load balancing methods. AUTO START VNC SERVER LINUX

However, sessions are not assigned according to how busy individual real servers are. This load balancing method provides some persistence because all sessions from the same source address always go to the same real server. However, the distribution is stateless, so if a real server is added or removed or goes up or down the distribution is changed and persistence could be lost.

Directs new requests to the next real server, and treats all real servers as equals regardless of response time or number of connections. Dead real servers or non responsive real servers are avoided. Real servers with a higher weight value receive a larger percentage of connections. Set the real server weight when adding a real server.

Directs requests to the real server that has the least number of current connections. This method works best in environments where the real servers or other equipment you are load balancing all have similar capabilities. This load balancing method uses the FortiGate session table to track the number of sessions being processed by each real server.

The FortiGate unit cannot detect the number of sessions actually being processed by a real server. Directs sessions to the real server with the least round trip time. The round trip time is determined by a Ping health check monitor and is defaulted to 0 if no Ping health check monitors are added to the virtual server.

Always directs sessions to the first alive real server. This load balancing schedule provides real server failover protection by sending all sessions to the first alive real server and if that real server fails, sending all sessions to the next alive real server. First refers to the order of the real servers in the virtual server configuration.

For example, if you add real servers A, B and C in that order, then all sessions always go to A as long as it is alive. When forwarded the destination address of the sessions is translated to the IP address of one of the web servers. The load balancing configuration also includes session persistence using HTTP cookies, round-robin load balancing, and TCP health monitoring for the real servers. Ping health monitoring consists of the FortiGate unit using ICMP ping to make sure the web servers can respond to network traffic.

The inspection mode must be proxy-based, or the virtual server will not be available as a destination. See Inspection modes for details. Basic load balancing configuration example This section describes the steps required to configure the load balancing configuration shown below.

Virtual server and real servers setup To configure the example load balancing configuration - general configuration steps Add a load balance ping health check monitor. A ping health check monitor causes the FortiGate unit to ping the real servers every 10 seconds.

If one of the servers does not respond within 2 seconds, the FortiGate unit will retry the ping 3 times before assuming that the HTTP server is not responding. Add a load balance virtual server. Add the three load balance real servers to the virtual server.

Add a security policy that includes the load balance virtual server as the destination address. IP Address This policy also applies an Antivirus profile to the load balanced sessions. Antivirus Turn on and select an Antivirus profile. Select OK.

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If a real server responds to connection attempts, the load balancer continues to send sessions to it. If a real server stops responding to connection attempts, the load balancer assumes that the server is down and does not send sessions to it. The health check monitor configuration determines how the load balancer tests real servers. You can use a single health check monitor for multiple load balancing configurations.

You usually set the health check monitor to use the same protocol as the traffic being load balanced to it. For example, if you are load balancing HTTP and HTTPS sessions to a collection of eCommerce web servers, when users make a purchase, they will be starting multiple sessions as they navigate the eCommerce site. In most cases, all the sessions started by this user during one eCommerce session should be processed by the same real server.

Typically, the HTTP protocol keeps track of these related sessions using cookies. HTTP cookie persistence ensure all sessions that are part of the same user session are processed by the same real server. When you configure persistence, the FortiGate unit load balances a new session to a real server according to the load balance method.

Add real servers to a load balancing virtual server to provide information the virtual server requires to send sessions to the server. A real server configuration includes the IP address of the real server and port number the real server receives sessions on. When configuring a real server, you can also specify the weight if the load balance method is set to Weighted and you can limit the maximum number of open connections between the FortiGate unit and the real server. If the maximum number of connections is reached for the real server, the FortiGate unit automatically switches all further connection requests to other real servers until the connection number drops below the limit.

Setting Maximum Connections to 0 means that the FortiGate unit does not limit the number of connections to the real server. This example describes the steps to configure the load balancing configuration below. When forwarded, the destination address of the session is translated to the IP address of one of the web servers. This load balancing configuration also includes session persistence using HTTP cookies, round-robin load balancing, and TCP health monitoring for the real servers.

Ping health monitoring consists of the FortiGate unit using ICMP ping to ensure the web servers can respond to network traffic. A ping health check monitor causes the FortiGate to ping the real servers every 10 seconds. If one of the servers does not respond within 2 seconds, the FortiGate unit will retry the ping 3 times before assuming that the HTTP server is not responding.

See Feature visibility on page 1 for details. If the access request has an http-cookie, FortiGate forwards the access to the corresponding real server according to the cookie. Virtual server load balance This topic shows a special virtual IP type: virtual server. Virtual server requirements When creating a new virtual server, you must configure the following options: Virtual Server Type. Load Balancing Methods. Health check monitoring optional. Session persistence optional. Virtual Server Port External Port.

Virtual server types Select the protocol to be load balanced by the virtual server. IP Select IP to load balance all sessions accepted by the security policy that contains this virtual server. Load balancing methods The load balancing method defines how sessions are load balanced to real servers. Static The traffic load is statically spread evenly across all real servers.

Round Robin Directs new requests to the next real server. Weighted Real servers with a higher weight value receive a larger percentage of connections. Least Session Directs requests to the real server that has the least number of current connections.

Least RTT Directs sessions to the real server with the lowest round trip time. First Alive Directs sessions to the first live real server. Health check monitoring In the FortiGate GUI, you can configure health check monitoring so that the FortiGate unit can verify that real servers are able respond to network connection attempts. Real servers Add real servers to a load balancing virtual server to provide information the virtual server requires to send sessions to the server.

Sample of HTTP load balancing to three real web servers This example describes the steps to configure the load balancing configuration below. General steps: Create a health check monitor. Create a load balance virtual server with three real servers. Add the load balancing virtual server to a policy as the destination address. Click Create New. Enter the HTTP header for load balancing across multiple real servers. To add a real server from the CLI you configure a virtual server and add real servers to it.

For example, to add three real servers to a virtual server that load balances UDP sessions on port using weighted load balancing. For each real server the port is not changed. The default real server port is 0 resulting in the traffic being sent the real server with destination port Each real sever is given a different weight. Servers with higher weights have a max-connections limit to prevent too many sessions from being sent to them.

If a real server responds to connection attempts the load balancer continues to send sessions to it. If a real server stops responding to connection attempts the load balancer assumes that the server is down and does not send sessions to it. The health check monitor configuration determines how the load balancer tests the real servers. You can use a single health check monitor for multiple load balancing configurations. Usually you would want the health check monitor to use the same protocol for checking the health of the server as the traffic being load balanced to it.

If you set the port to 0, the health check monitor uses the port defined in the real server. This allows you to use the same health check monitor for multiple real servers using different ports. You can also configure the interval, timeout and retry. A health check occurs every number of seconds indicated by the interval. If a reply is not received within the timeout period the health check is repeated every second.

If no response is received after the number of configured retires, the virtual server is considered unresponsive, and load balancing does not srend traffic to that real server. The health check monitor will continue to contact the real server and if successful, the load balancer can resume sending sessions to the recovered real server.

The default health check configuration has an interval of 10 seconds, a timeout of 2 seconds and a retry of 3. This means that the health check monitor checks the health of a real server every 10 seconds. If a reply is not received within 2 seconds the health check monitor re-checks the server every second for 3 retries. If no response is received for 2 seconds after the final retry the server is considered unresponsive.

The URL is optional. For example, if the IP address of the real server is If the URL returns a web page, the matched content should exactly match some of the text on the web page. Matched content is only required if you add a URL. When the FortiGate unit receives the web page in response to the URL get request, the system searches the content of the web page for the matched content phrase.

Enter the port number used to perform the health check. If you set the Port to 0, the health check monitor uses the port defined in the real server. This way you can use a single health check monitor for different real servers. If the URL returns a web page, the Matched Content should exactly match some of the text on the web page. When the FortiGate unit receives the web page in response to the URL get request, the system searches the content of the web page for the Matched Content phrase.

For an HTTP health check monitor, specify the maximum number of redirects that the health check monitor will follow when testing the health of the real HTTP server. This feature allows you to do health checking of the HTTP server is accessed through one or more redirects.

Enter the number of seconds which must pass after the server health check to indicate a failed health check. Enter the number of times, if any, a failed health check will be retried before the server is determined to be inaccessible. The following limitations apply when adding virtual IPs, load balancing virtual servers, and load balancing real servers.

Load balancing virtual servers are actually server load balancing virtual IPs. You can also use the get test ipldb command from the CLI to display similar information. For each real server the monitor displays health status up or down , active sessions, round trip time RTT and the amount of bytes of data processed. From the monitor page you can also stop sending new sessions to any real server.

When you select to stop sending sessions the FortiGate unit performs of graceful stop by continuing to send data for sessions that were established or persistent before you selected stop. However, no new sessions are started. Displays the health status according to the health check results for each real server. A green arrow means the server is up. A red arrow means the server is down. This value will change only when ping monitoring is enabled on a real server.

Select to start or stop real servers. When stopping a server, the FortiGate unit will not accept new sessions but will wait for the active sessions to finish. You can also use the following diagnose commands to view status information for load balancing virtual servers and real servers:. For example, the following command lists and displays status information for all real servers: diagnose firewall vip virtual-server real-server. Many of the diagnostic commands involve retrieving information about one or more virtual servers.

To control which servers are queried you can define a filter:. The filtering can be done on source, destination, virtual-server name, virtual domain, and so on:. In the following example there is only one virtual server called slb and it has two real-servers:.

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Configuring load balancing This section describes how to use the FortiOS server load balancing to load balance traffic to multiple backend servers. Server load balancing configuration Traffic can be balanced across multiple backend real servers based on a selection of load balancing methods including static failover , round robin, weighted to account for different sized servers, or based on the health and performance of the server including round trip time, number of connections.

The real server topology is transparent to end users, and the users interact with the system as if it were only a single server with the IP address and port number of the Load balancing and other FortiOS features virtual server. Load balancing and other FortiOS features Flow-based and proxy-based security features such as virus scanning, IPS, DLP, application control, and web filtering can be applied to load balanced sessions.

Configuring load balancing from the GUI A virtual server is a specialized firewall virtual IP that performs server load balancing. Type Select the type of virtual server to configure. Name Enter the name for the virtual server. Type Select the protocol to be load balanced by the virtual server.

Interface Select the virtual server external or outgoing interface from the list. Virtual Server Port Enter the external port number that you want to map to a port number on the destination network. Load Balance Method Select the load balancing method used by the virtual server. Persistence Configure persistence to make sure that a user is connected to the same server every time they make a request that is part of the same session.

Real Servers Add Real Servers to the virtual server. You can use the arp-reply option disable sending ARP replies: config firewall vip edit Vserver-HTTP-1 set type server-load-balance set arp-reply disable … The load balancing virtual server configuration also includes the virtual server port. Load balancing methods The load balancing method defines how sessions are load balanced to real servers.

Static The traffic load is statically spread evenly across all real servers. Session persistence Round Robin Directs new requests to the next real server, and treats all real servers as equals regardless of response time or number of connections. Weighted Real servers with a higher weight value receive a larger percentage of connections. Least Session Directs requests to the real server that has the least number of current connections.

Least RTT Directs sessions to the real server with the least round trip time. First Alive Always directs sessions to the first alive real server. For example, if you add real servers A, B and C in that order, then all sessions always go to A as long as it is alive.

HTTP cookie persistence makes sure that all sessions that are part of the same user session are processed by the same real server When you configure persistence, the FortiGate unit load balances a new session to a real server according to the load balance method.

Real servers Add real servers to a load balancing virtual server to provide the information the virtual server requires to be able to send sessions to the server. Real server active, standby, and disabled modes By default the real server mode setting is active indicating that the real server is available to receive connections. For example: A virtual server that includes two real servers one in active mode and one in standby mode. If the real server in active mode fails, the real server in standby mode is changed to active mode and all sessions are sent to this real server.

A virtual server includes three real servers, two in active mode and one in standby mode, if one of the real servers in active mode fails, the real server in standby mode is changed to active mode and sessions are load balanced between it and still operating real server.

If both real servers in active mode fail, all sessions are sent to the real server in standby mode. Real servers Port Enter the port number on the destination network to which the external port number is mapped. Weight Enter the weight value of the real server. Max Connections Enter the limit on the number of active connections directed to a real server. Mode Select a mode for the real server. The real server can be active, on standby, or disabled.

Name Enter the name of the health check monitor configuration. Type Select the protocol used to perform the health check. Interval Enter the number of seconds between each server health check. Load balancing limitations Max Redirects For an HTTP health check monitor, specify the maximum number of redirects that the health check monitor will follow when testing the health of the real HTTP server.

Timeout Enter the number of seconds which must pass after the server health check to indicate a failed health check. Retry Enter the number of times, if any, a failed health check will be retried before the server is determined to be inaccessible. Load balancing limitations The following limitations apply when adding virtual IPs, load balancing virtual servers, and load balancing real servers.

When port forwarding, the count of mapped port numbers and external port numbers must be the same. Real Server The IP addresses of the existing real servers. Status Displays the health status according to the health check results for each real server.

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